# 9 Easy Facts About Blockchain Protocol Explained

For example, the SHA-256 of the term BUTTERFLY (origin ) is 8c62ace4f9ef8ccd08ca6fb992a8524bb7dbdc0530654bd254c9da07a660949a (HASH). This seemingly random string of letters and numbers contains three important properties:

Bitcoin mining involves three factors: the cube, the mining difficulty and a random number. Heres how it all comes together:

Imagine our block consists of the word BUTTERFLY discussed earlier. In reality, the block could contain a listing of recent, unverified transactions, but lets keep it simple. In order for the block to be solved, bitcoin uses a deceptively simple test: If the HASH result of the block begins with a certain number of zeros, the cube is considered verified.

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For our example, lets say that we've a mining difficulty of simply two, ie, our HASH must begin with two zeros. .

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The problem: BUTTERFLY will always return the exact same HASH, and it doesnt begin with two zeros. Thus what we need is your third factor, a random number (known as a NONCE). We carry this number, combine it with BUTTERFLY, and HASH again. If it doesnt start with two zeros, we change the number and try again, and since changing one little number changes the whole HASH result, there's absolutely no method to predict the number well need to address this! .

We repeat this process over and over until we find a number that, when combined with BUTTERFLY, gives us a HASH that starts with two zeros. That number is your solution to the block. Here are some attempts:

This arduous process of randomly trying to find a number that supplies the solution is the thing that makes bitcoin mining such a computationally expensive process, and as more miners join the network, the tougher it gets. As of November 2017, a regular home computer working alone, ie, not an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) and not part of a cloud mining network, would take 2.7 million years to mine one block. .

This has led to the growth of ASIC computers built particularly for mining and to an increase in cloud mining.

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CPU mining. In the early days of bitcoin, mining issue was reduced and not a lot of miners were competing for blocks and rewards. This made it worthwhile to utilize your computers own central processing unit (CPU) to mine bitcoin. However, that strategy was soon replaced by GPU mining.

GPU mining. An graphics processing unit (GPU) is a powerful processor whose sole purpose is to assist your computers graphics card in rendering 3D graphics. GPUs are not constructed for executive decisions (like CPUs) but to be very great labourers, hence GPUs can execute over 800 times more instructions in precisely the exact same amount of time as a CPU.

FPGA mining. Next came mining with field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). These significantly outperformed GPUs and CPUs in the mining process as FPGAs are processors that can be programmed to perform specific instructions and only those instructions (instead of being repurposed for mining, like GPUs were).

ASIC mining. Similar to FPGAs, application-specific integrated circuits are chips designed for a specific purpose, in our situation mining bitcoin, and nothing else. ASICs for bitcoin were introduced in 2013 and, as of November 2017, they're the best processors out there for mining bitcoin and they outperform FPGAs in electricity consumption. .

Mining pools. To offset the problem of mining a block, miners started organising in cloud or pools mining networks. Whenever a miner in one of these pools simplifies a cube, the payoff is shared with everyone in the pool in a ratio representative of just how much work you put into the pool (even though you personally never solved the mystery ). .

Cloud mining. Clouds offer prospective miners the ability to buy mining rigs in a remote data centre location. There are many obvious advantages, the most obvious being: no electricity expenses, no excess heat and nothing to market when you decide to hang your digital pickaxe.

Once miners receive bitcoin, they are given a virtual key to the bitcoin addresses. You can use this digital key to gain access and validate or approve transactions.

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Desktop wallets. Software description like Bitcoin Core allows you to send and store bitcoin addresses and also connects to the network to monitor transactions.

Online wallets. Bitcoin keys are stored online by exchange platforms such as Coinbase or Circle and can be retrieved from anywhere.

Mobile wallets. Apps like Blockchain shop and encrypt your own bitcoin keys so that you can make payments using your mobile device.

Paper wallets. Some websites offer paper wallet solutions, generating a piece of paper using two QR codes on it. One code is your public address at which you get bitcoin and the other one is the private address you can use for spending.